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Study on the unexplainable medical diagnosis kleptomania

From a young age, we are trained to play nice, tell others, and not take possessions that don’t belong to ourselves. As we grow older, we learn self-control, getting our keep, and guard our valuables from others. However, for a few the moralistic guidelines, dread, embarrassment and guilt aren’t enough to prevent stealing from occurring daily.

The news is continually broadcasting crimes of shoplifting, burglary, larceny, identify theft, robbery, and also plagiarism. These acts are deliberate, whether spontaneous or organized, that involve taking something for personal or profit (Taylor, Kelly, Valescu, Reynolds, Sherman, & German, 2001). Although these crimes are easily understood and rather common, a different type of stealing, kleptomania, presents an entirely different perspective.

Some individuals utilize the terms kleptomania and shoplifting synonymously. The National Association of Shoplifting Prevention found that one in every eleven adult possess shoplifted at least one time in their lifetime. In addition they found that more than thirteen billion dollars worthy of of products are stolen from retailers in the United States each year (Grant, Odalaug, Davis, Kim, 2009). Roughly 0-8% of all shoplifters possess kleptomania (Dannon, 2002). Although they share common characteristics, kleptomania is a more relentless and atypical disorder.

Around for over two centuries, kleptomania is a distinct psychiatric disorder yet it is always poorly understood and unrecognizable to many clinicians. It is believed to affect just .06 percent of the populace. Although little is well known about this disorder, kleptomania is a significant disorder, which causes functional impairment. It really is remarkably correlated with psychiatric hospitalizations and suicidal ideations (Grant & Kim, 2003).

Similar to other styles of stealing, kleptomania can be an impulse control disorder. Individuals with this mental disorder cannot resist urges to engage in activities that could be bad for themselves or others. The manifestation of kleptomania can occur across all age ranges, but the mean onset is twenty years old (Dannon, 2002). It is different from other styles of stealing for the reason that these individuals do not steal for personal or monetary gain, but rather for leisure (Dannon, Aizer, & Lowengrub, 2006).

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV, "Kleptomania may be the recurrent failure to withstand impulses to steal things despite the fact that the items aren’t necessary for personal use or for their monetary value. To be diagnosed the next five diagnostic criteria must be met: a rising pressure immediately prior to the theft, pleasure or pain relief after committing the theft, the theft isn’t motivated by anger or vengeance, or the effect of a delusion or hallucination, and the patterns is not better accounted for by a conduct disorder, manic instance, or antisocial character disorder. The items are stolen even though they are usually of little value to the average person, who could own afforded to pay for them and frequently throws them aside or discards them (American Psychiatric Association, 2000)."

Kleptomania is thought to affect two to three times more women and be linked to menstruation and premenstration periods (Dannon, Aizer, & Lowengrub, 2006). It commonly coexists with depression, stress, mood, chemical dependency, and ingesting disorders. Kleptomania can also coexist with major despair, panic attacks, interpersonal phobia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, drug abuse, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (Dannon, Aizer, & Lowengrub, 2006).

Kleptomania is linked with continual failed attempts to stop stealing. It could be specific to certain items or settings. It is a solo act, where no collaboration is performed with others. The individual may steal from general public places, stores, supermarkets, or from relatives and buddies members. The items they steal routinely have no value to them. They often times secretly

donate, hand out, or return the things they steal (Kleptomania, 2009).

Alike to other analyses, experts Grant and Kim found that most people with kleptomania steal household merchandise followed by groceries. Ironically, the least likely items they happen to be to steal are books and music. Nearly all participants reported stress and anxiety as being the cause of their stealing and sights and sounds as their least very likely trigger. The large most these individuals claimed they resist the urge of stealing by thinking about getting caught. The least amount of individuals admitted that browsing when stores are active prevents them from resisting their urges to steal (Grant & Kim, 2002).

Although little is known about the etiology of kleptomania, various researchers believe it has a genetic component which may be transmitted among relatives (Grant & Kim, 2002). Some researchers believe it may be linked to the item of serotonin in the brain (Dannon, 2002). Others believe the onset is connected with brain trauma, frontal lobe damage, dementia, and hypoglycemia (Dannon, Aizer, & Lowengrub, 2006). Symptoms of kleptomania quite often originate between overdue adolescence and early on adulthood. In rare circumstances, it can begin as soon as childhood or as overdue as adulthood (Kleptomania, 2009).

Risk factors play a substantial purpose in the progression of kleptomania. Individuals which may have blood family members with kleptomania, mood disorders, addictions, obsessive compulsive disorder, or excessive existence stressors are at a significant risk for developing kleptomania (Dannon, Aizer, & Lowengrub, 2006). The preceding research provide added support.

Grant and Kim performed a study in 2002 to look at the how to write a tok essay: tips similarities of the starting point and family history of kleptomania. Grant found that the participants reported an average onset of sixteen years. Even so, most individuals were not diagnosed with their disorder until approximately six years from starting point and symptoms were discovered to last twenty-one years typically. The study discovered that the sole predictor of producing kleptomania in one year of starting point was a family record of prior psychiatric disease. Nevertheless, little is well known about the biological facet of kleptomania; accordingly, it warrants further analysis (Grant & Kim, 2002).

A second study predicated on gender related distinctions in individuals trying to find treatment for kleptomania offers you further analysis. The analysis found that both men and women identified as having kleptomania have relatively serious symptoms and functional impairments. In fact, people with kleptomania had three times greater symptoms than those reported in pathological gambling, twice of these found in individuals with post traumatic strain disorder, and one and a half times those reported in drug abuse disorders. The intensity of the www.testmyprep.com symptoms were comparable to those who are diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder and main depressive disorders (Grant & Potenza, 2008).

The study went on to find that ladies with kleptomania were much more likely to be married (47.1%), start shoplifting at a later on age (20.9 years older), have comorbid disorders of unhappiness (55.6%), steal house-hold merchandise from shops (60.35), and hoard things they stole (50%). Fewer men were found to be married (25.9%), and their starting point of stealing occurred previous (14 years old). Men reported having even more comorbid impulse-control disorders (51.9%), stealing from electronic-goods stores (48.1%), and giving things away (40.7%). Lastly, girls rated the view of something (38.2%) as their trigger for stealing, while men rated anxiety/stress (37.0%) as their top rated motive for stealing. The lowest rated trigger for both men and women was low self-esteem (Grant & Potenza, 2008).

A third research, which centered on one’s perception of symptoms, provides additional investigation on the features of kleptomania. There is no question an individual with kleptomania activities urges to steal and shame thereafter. On the other hand, this review found a correlation between your intensity of symptoms and perceived pressure. The more powerful and plentiful the symptoms will be, the more kleptomaniacs’ are to view their lives as erratic and unmanageable. The sooner treatment emerges to individuals with kleptomania, the much less their perceived stress and anxiety will be. As a result of reducing their perceived anxiety, they will reduce using the stress in their lives and live healthier lifestyles (Grant, Kim & Grosz, 2003).

Although only .06 percent of the populace is reported to have kleptomania, it is regarded as under reported (Dannon, Aizer, & Lowengrub, 2006; Kohn, 2006). Grant performed a study that identified rates as huge at 7.8 percent (Grant & Kim, 2002). People with kleptomania experience various symptoms that are unique to themselves. After recognizing the symptoms, individuals with kleptomania should identify why they are participating in these risky behaviors.

Why individuals steal is founded on a number of objectives and motives. Young children steal products because they lack a knowledge. They cannot comprehend that things cost money and in order to receive items they need to pay for them. As they approach school age, children are taught correct versus wrong and that they should not take things that usually do not belong to themselves. As kids approach adolescents, they should fully understand they cannot take issues without asking authorization or spending money on the items. At the idea of adolescents and adulthood, individuals know stealing is wrong, yet many still engage in this criminal behavior. Peer pressure, modeling, personal difficulties, a lack of self-control, trying to experience a void, suppress various other tribulations or defiance could all be functions of stealing (Tynan, 2008)

The function of kleptomania is unique from all other forms of stealing. Individuals with this disorder steal, not really for personal or monetary gain, but rather for the thrill. They are typically financially well off and see no worth in the things they are acquiring (Kleptomania, 2009).

Self-report measures can be a useful technique to determine the antecedents and consequences of the behavior and the correlations with different disorders. The Beck Melancholy Inventory-II and the Beck Stress and anxiety Inventory might help identify the harshness of each co-morbid disorder. Clinical discussions and evaluations about the Abstinence Violation Effect may possibly also help in identifying a person’s perception of the increased loss of control over their behaviors (Kohn, 2006).

Even though these specific steal for the excitement, they experience many legal repercussions (Grant, Odalaug, Davis, Kim, 2009). Alike to stealing, kleptomaniacs are aware stealing is incorrect and senseless. They often do not look at the repercussions of the criminal offense before committing it unless there will be immediate possibilities of arrest. Before the initial work they feel tension and dread being apprehended. Through the crime, they think gratitude and pleasure. Following a crime they experience feelings of guilt, shame, and depression (Kleptomania, 2009). The next studies offer further support.

Out of the one hundred and one adults with kleptomania studied, 74% reported being halted by store protection on at least one event, 69% reported getting arrested, 37% reported getting arrested but not convicted, and 21% of the participants reported being convicted with incarceration after their conviction. The rest of the 27% of the participants reported these were never stopped by retailer protection or arrested (Grant, Odalaug, Davis, Kim, 2009). The effects indicate the kleptomania is usually a pathological tendencies that results in significant legal repercussions, personal distress, and functional impairment (Grant, Kim, McCabe, 2006).

A second study discovered that 64%-87% of people with kleptomania have already been arrested at some point in their life. It went on to mention that those who have kleptomania have quite often been arrested multiple circumstances, with some reporting over 10 life-time arrest. They found that 15-23% of individuals seeking treatment have put in time in jail as a result of shoplifting (Grant & Kim, 2002).

Since arrest and incarceration will take an emotional toll on these individuals, clinicians have to place a significant emphasis on behavioral and emotional outcomes (Grant, Odalaug, Davis, Kim, 2009). Shoplifting most commonly begins in overdue adolescence or early on adulthood, and for a lot of people with kleptomania, it would appear that it may take several years to meet the DSM-IV conditions for kleptomania (Grant, Odalaug, Davis, Kim, 2009). Subsequently, early recognition and prevention efforts for individuals who are captured shoplifting may avoid the development of kleptomania.

Given that people who have kleptomania rarely seek

medical assistantance, this disorder is normally difficult to diagnose. Physical and emotional evaluations are performed to make certain nothing is physically wrong with the average person creating the triggering of symptoms. Preliminary mental evaluations may detect signs or symptoms of poor parenting, conflicts in interactions, or severe stressors (Kleptomania, 2009). It is difficult for medical doctors to identify kleptomania because they may have habits of stealing restricted to specific objects and/or events. When kleptomania is usually diagnosed it commonly occurs when persons seek treatment for additional disorders such as for example: depression, bulimia, emotional instability, or dysphoria (Grant & Kim, 2002).

Since there is no specific test to determine if an individual has kleptomania or certainly not, a set of questions and conditions are implemented to evaluate the responses of the individual. First, the individual would be asked problems regarding their medical history to see if they have any other diagnosis. Next their family history, consumption of alcohol and drugs, and current medications would be evaluated. Subsequently, they might be asked considerably more personal questions. Common questions asked determine at what time the first connection with stealing occurred, how often the thoughts occur, have they ever been caught, what forms of things do they steal, do they need these items, who perform they steal from, and what carry out they do with the things they steal. Additional inquiries may revolve around the triggers that urge them to steal and how stealing impacts the areas of their existence (Kleptomania, 2009).

After a clinician assesses the physical and mental analysis and clinical interview, they would do a comparison of their client’s responses compared to that of the DSM-IV. As mentioned, to become diagnosed with kleptomania, a person must possess the next symptoms: an inability to withstand urges to steal objects that are not necessary for personal or monetary gain, the feelings of increased tension leading up to a meeting, the feelings of comfort and gratification proceeding the theft, not committed because of revenge or anger, not really performed during hallucinations or delusions, rather than related to manic episodes, bipolar disorder, or other mental well being disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). To become diagnosed as having kleptomania, the individual must meet all the criteria.

Currently, psychiatrists are using the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID) to identify individuals with kleptomania. This is a trusted diagnostic instrument, but it lacks certain assessments to successfully identify all cases of kleptomania. So, Grant, Kim, and McCabe designed a comparable Organized Clinical Interview for Kleptomania (SCI-K). During their study, 112 people with multiple disorders, trying to find psychiatric outpatient therapy, were administered the interview. The SCI-K took typically twenty minutes to manage and was well received by all the participants. Therefore, the Structured Clinical Interview for Kleptomania was identified to have excellent reliability and validity in diagnosing kleptomania in these individuals. Although this study must be replicated with a larger and more diverse population, it shows many promise (Grant, Kim, and McCabe, 2006). Based on the results of the study and future studies to come, kleptomania may 1 day be simpler to distinguish and treat.

Once the disorder can be evaluated and verified by a clinician, treatment and coping strategies are implemented. Although treatment is necessary for folks with kleptomania, most fail to obtain treatment and the pharmacological treatment is limited due to the lack of handled trials (Dannon, Aizer, & Lowengrub, 2006). Consequently, psychiatrists have little scientific data which to base their recommendations.

Although there happen to be few analyses and limited research, there are always a plethora of medications and therapies used to help individuals with mental health disorders. The five most common types of medications are antidepressants, disposition stabilizers, benzodiazepines, anti-seizure, and addiction medication.

Antidepressants are the most frequent kind of medication used to take care of kleptomania (Kleptomania, 2009; Dannon, 2002; Dannon, Aizer, & Lowengrub, 2006). They consist of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors that help to decrease impulses to steal. These medications are also found to efficiently treat different impulse control disorders such as trichotillomania, pathological gambling, binge-eating, and compulsive investing in (Dannon, 2002). Antidepressant prescription drugs incorporate: fluoxetine, fluoxamine, paroxetine, naltrexone and (Kleptomania, 2009).

Fluoxetine has got been cited by many studies as being the most appropriate to treat the symptoms connected with kleptomania. Fluvoxamine was the second most successful medicine in treating symptoms associated with impulse-control disorders when psychodynamic and therapy failed. When found in combination with other medications for typically three months, paroxetine was found effective in lowering urges to steal. Lastly, naltrexone, the most recent drug tested, was found to lessen linked symptoms of kleptomania when used in combination with paroxetine (Dannon, 2002).

Mood stabilizers will be the second type of medication that could be useful in treating kleptomania. The roles of these medications are to balance out mood to ensure that stealing isn’t triggered. The most frequent mood stabilizer used to take care of kleptomania can be lithium (Kleptomaniam 2009).

Following, Benzodiazepines are used to control the central nervous program. Their effectiveness varies, but caution must be taken for these medicines can be quite habit forming if used high doses or over a long period of time. These tranquilizer type medicines contain clonazepam and alprazolam (Kleptomania, 2009).

The fourth band of medication used to take care of kleptomania is anti-seizure prescription drugs. This kind of medication isn’t only used to treat seizures, but have also been found to benefit certain mental wellbeing disorders. Anti-seizure medications consist of topiramate and valproic acid (Kleptomania, 2009).

Lastly, addiction medications are being used to reduce the symptoms connected with kleptomania. These medication block parts of the brain that feels urges to steal and delight when stealing (Kleptomania, 2009). Each of the previous listed medicines are possible remedies for kleptomania, but shouldn’t be used alone.

Grant and Kim conducted a study to check this theory. They found that 60% of the persons in their study attempted to get help at some time in their lifestyle for kleptomania. Since kleptomania is complicated to diagnose, physicians recommended anxiety and depression medicines to take care of the symptoms that these individuals demonstrated. Of the medications prescribed, no person felt a decrease in their kleptomania urges and symptoms. This research supports the previous claim, stating that medicine alone isn’t proven to lessen the symptoms of

kleptomania (Grant & Kim, 2002).

Therapy should be used in accompaniment of medication to relieve symptoms associated with kleptomania. The direction of therapy for kleptomania commonly revolves around impulse control and accompanying mental disorders. However, there exists a discrepancy between which therapies are used most frequently and which are most beneficial. Therapies typically implemented are cognitive behavioral remedy and psychoanalytic therapies such as covert sensitization, aversion remedy, and systematic desensitization. Regarding to a report by Antonuccio, Burn, and Danton, cognitive-behavioral interventions are the most plausible and productive treatment for kleptomania and also have the least number of unwanted effects (Antonuccio, Burns, & Danton, 2002). The Mayo Clinic concurs mentioning that cognitive behavioral therapy has shown much accomplishment in relieving the symptoms linked to kleptomania. In addition, they talk about that cognitive behavioral remedy helps people with kleptomania identify unhealthy negative thoughts and behaviors and change them with healthy positive associations (Kleptomania, 2009).

According to another research executed by Dannon, he states that cognitive-behavioral therapy has typically replaced psychoanalytic and powerful approaches (Dannon, 2002). He discovered that covert sensitization, aversion remedy, and systematic desensitization have got proven beneficial for individuals with kleptomania. Covert sensitization encourages the individual to picture themselves stealing and then being trapped stealing. Aversion remedy encourages the individuals to engage in painful techniques to exchange their urges of stealing. Systematic desensitization promotes relaxation techniques to control the urge to steal (Kleptomania, 2009).

Aside from pharmacological, cognitive-behavioral, and psychoanalytic treatments, the Mayo Clinic gives further coping and support strategies. Individuals with kleptomania have to educate themselves on the factors, treatment, and triggers of kleptomania and stick to their treatment solution. The more specific they are in pursuing their medication guidelines and going to their therapeutic sessions, the better off they’ll be at fighting this disorder. They want to determine their triggers and find appropriate ways to manage their urges. People with kleptomania could benefit from relaxation and stress administration techniques. Meditation and yoga could help them focus their strength in a positive way. Ultimately, they need to stay focused on their goal (Kleptomania, 2009). Kleptomania is a significant disorder and with it comes many drawbacks. If everything else fails, there are support groups predicated on twelve-step programs. Being portion of an organization and understand "You are not alone" has been confirmed to benefit many individuals with mental disorders (Kleptomania, 2009).

Similar to numerous impulse-control disorders, it is not uncommon for folks with kleptomania to relapse. It is crucial that individuals carefully follow their treatment strategies. If they think triggers and urges to steal, they have to contact their mental overall health provider, an established support group, or if on probation, let their probation officer know (Kleptomania, 2009).

The prognosis for kleptomania can be fair. The very best preventative measure is normally correcting acts of

stealing in childhood. When parents first recognize their child is stealing, they should discuss and make clear why stealing is incorrect. As children begin to understand why stealing is incorrect, they must be taught ownership and appropriate ways of getting things without spending them. By modeling suitable behaviors and praising kids for his or her honest behavior, stealing could be corrected before it turns into mind-boggling and unmanageable (Zolten & Long, 2006).

Research has discovered that amongst shoplifters, those who experience constant, universal emotions of embarrassment and guilt are more likely to continue stealing. Individuals who experience situation-specific feelings of humiliation will discontinue their behaviors associated with stealing (Kohn, 2006).

Early detection and treatment are the best defenses to help symptoms of kleptomania become manageable (Kleptomania, 2009). If left untreated, kleptomania can lead to relentless psychological, legal, and monetary challenges (Kleptomania, 2009). Individuals may live in frequent guilt and humiliation. Due to this disorder, people can experience arrest, imprisonment, depression, alcohol and substance abuse, eating disorders, nervousness, compulsive gambling or shopping, suicidal ideations, and cultural isolation. The Mayo Clinic shows that, "A wholesome upbringing, positive romantic relationships, and a manageable approach to handle acute stress may reduced the prevalence of kleptomania and coexisting disorders" (Kleptomania, 2009).

Kleptomania has been around for nearly two decades, but still little is known about the causes, medical diagnosis, and treatment of such a severe mental disorder. For years many clinicians assume that the starting point of kleptomania was generally due to a family group history, the existence of other psychological disorder or unmanageable life stressors. Clinicians constantly used a broadly respectable diagnostic program, the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID), to recognize symptoms related to kleptomania. Once they were able to recognize involved symptoms, they perpetually prescribe medication to lessen and relieve the symptoms.

With the advancements in technology and vast psychological studies, the complexities, diagnosis, and treatment of kleptomania have already been questioned. A change in exploration has drifted away from the traditional genetic features and directed their focus on head injuries and mind pathological as being possible causing of kleptomania. Experts Grant, Kim, and

McCabe opened doors to a far more effective and successful diagnostic software doubting the dependability and practicality of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Study after research, found the fewer side effects and the considerably more manageable approach connected with cognitive behavioral remedy has bring about greater victory in treating symptoms linked to kleptomania. The point being, more research and further investigation in to the etiology, biology, diagnostic actions and treatment can be warranted. Hopefully in the a long time, kleptomania will no longer be known as the unexplainable disorder, but rather one which has answers.

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